Kerosene (keroselain- wax oil)

If you are anything like me you have never spent more than one hour thinking, speaking or reading about kerosene.  But that changed when in L’viv, Ukraine I discovered the Kerosene Museum.

IMG_20170820_115051According to history kerosene became a “thing” in the 9th century in Persia, discovered by a chemist named Razi and written about in his “Book of Secrets”

Kerosene is used worldwide under different names.  If you were in Chile,  Eastern Africa, South Africa or the United Kingdom you might be buying paraffin. If you were in asia you might be buying lamp oil, and in the United States it was called coal oil; but, is also known as white naptha.

A little divergence here. I remember my Grandmothers using Fels-Naptha soap in the old wringer washing machine.  Fels Naptha soap is a sodium salt from Tuerpene, processing hydrocarbons and it is now produced by Purex Corporation. They say that if you grate 1/2 bar of Fels Naptha and add it to your wash it will eliminate residual stains. I don’t know if I want to stand around and grate half a bar of soap but if you do, you can purchase Fels-Naptha bar soap from Amazon, Walmart or Ace Hardware – happy soaping!

IMG_20170820_115058So what is kerosene?  Actually, it’s a clear liquid produced by distilling petroleum.  It’s used as fuel in jet engines, rocket fuel; or, if you’re camping it’s used for cooking and lighting fuel.  In Asia it’s used in motorcycle engines and outboard motors.

Recent history of kerosene starts in 1846, in Canada with geologist Abraham Gesner, in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island where he developed a new process for making kerosene. Gesner wanted to patent his new process in Canada but ran up against governmental regulations and petroleum industry roadblocks, so in 1854 he moved to New York state and patented “Kerosene”.

In 1846 another chemist from Scotland by the name of James Young also found a process for making kerosene.  He took out a patent in both Scotland and the United States prior to the 1854 patent of Gesner.

In 1851 Samuel Martin Kier known as the “Grandfather of the American Oil Industry” came along with carbon oil.

And now we come to L’viv and Ignacy Lukasiewicz a Polish pharmacist living in L’viv, and his Hungarian partner Jan Zeh who worked to improve upon Gesner’s process, using the petroleum from a local seep.


…. I don’t know which guy is hanging out of the window in the second floor, your guess is as good as mine 🙂

The local people did not really take them seriously until the night of July 31st 1853 when there was an emergency in the local hospital; and none of the lamps were bright enough to allow the surgery to proceed. The surgeon, knowing about their experiment with bright lantern light urged someone to go and get the lanterns from the pharmacist.

They were amazed at how bright the light was.  After the brilliant success (pun) in the surgery the pharmacist quit his job at the pharmacy, travelled to Vienna and registered a patent on his product.  In 1854 he moved to Poland with his patented product, and subsequently set up a refinery in 1859.

A side benefit to the discovery of kerosene is that in prior times whale oil had been the typical product for lamps.  When kerosene became widely used, whale hunting decreased. In 1858 there were 199 whaling ships, in 1860 there were 167, in 1866 105, and in 1874 only 39.

Buy Kerosene – Save a whale!









The Yard of Lost Toys, Lviv

When you were a child did you ever lose a toy?  It just disappeared. Did you accuse your brother or sister? Did you continue to search for it? Maybe the toy decided to find a new home on its own like a cat or dog that wanders off and ends up at someone else’s house. Perhaps that’s why Vacily Petrovich​ felt compelled to save two toys he found abandoned near his home in Lviv, Ukraine hoping the child would return and claim them.

Today there are hundreds of toys in this urban courtyard a short distance from The Church of Our Lady of the Snow and Rynok Square where you can buy farm fresh fruits and vegetables every day except Sunday.



The courtyard was a bit tricky to find because although the address was on Kniazia Lva 3, the entrance was on the backside on a different street.  But the search ended with an​ interesting find.  A treasure hunt of sorts.

The Yard of Lost Toys

The story goes that Vasily found two abandoned toys and in hopes that the child or children would come looking for them, he placed the safely on a shelf, under a narrow roof in the courtyard.  Unfortunately for the children and the toys, they were never to be together again.

But, something else happened.  Other toys began to mysteriously show up in Vasily’s courtyard.  Some were placed there by Vasily’s neighbours – but, who is to know if all of them were placed or perhaps other just decided to leave home because the children outgrew them, or sadly, they might have been mistreated.  Who knows?

But today you will find hundreds of toys – stuffed animals, tin trucks, dolls, wind up toys, tricycles, pails and shovels and rakes to use at the beach or in the  sandbox.

Take a photo on the swing set or decaying teeter-totter.  Or, if you find the lost toy from your childhood; or one that you would like to take home, you are encouraged to give it a loving forever home.


So, when you visit Lviv remember to leave room in the suitcase for your new found treasure 😋



“UKRAINE” for many people this word conjures up mental images of danger, strife, poverty, refugees and destruction. Even for me, until 6 days ago when the Eurobus I was traveling on arrived in the city of Lviv, Ukraine.

Why I went to Lviv is not the important part of the story; but what I saw and learned is. When I arrived I was in a bit of a uncomfortable situation, and suddenly a woman spoke to me in English asking if I needed help.  Liliya and her daughter-in-law, Oxana stepped in and became my rescuers.


Liliya quickly took me under her wing and  became my tour guide, history teacher and friend.

Ukraine is a mosiac of nationalities, cultures, religions and architecture. A lengthy history of power and wealth at a natural crossroad of trade routes from europe, the middle east, Baltic region and asia.  It was the center of commercial, religious and administrative activity.  Great buildings were constructed, libraries created, art and science flourished, and the city was famous for the rich culture. And then as with most of our affluent civilisations corruption, greed and eventually war over territory and wealth became the norm.

The Ukraine many of us know is the one that was in our school history books.  But let me show you the Ukraine I saw.  Granted, it was only one city; but it drastically changed my idea of what Ukraine is.  Lviv is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. 18 churches reside here: Catholic, Greek Catholic, Jewish, Armanian, Christian and Orthodox.  Perhaps Boim Family Chapel has the most interesting history and unique building.  (it’s story coming later). Read about this UNESCO chapel on Wikipedia or the UNESCO Site


Lviv also has some fun and interesting things to see.

The Yard of the Lost Toys.  Another story, another time
“The Father of Masochism”  Stay tuned for this and other stories of famous people from Lviv.
The cemetery that became a one-of-a-kind museum.  Another story, another time.

I’m not finished with Lviv!  Looking forward to another visit in September.


An art contest at a cafe
A woman promoting a tattoo studio.

El Escorial, Spain

My trip to El Escorial, about an hour north of Madrid started from the city of Valdemoro where I was staying with my “Spanish family” (mom Susanna; dad, Jose and girls with whom I had been practicing English conversation for the last few weeks).

One day I went to the sports complex with Susanna.  While she was working out, I went next door to the VIPS restaurant and was enjoying my coffee and bocadillo (sandwich) when a nice looking man approached and asked, in English, if I would consent to joining him and his friends who were mature students studying English.  Of course!  Who am I to pass up an opportunity to meet locals.

Then I received an invitation to join their English class as a native English speaker.  And, so, the next Tuesday I met with Ada, Rosa and Jose Maria in Fernando’s class.  And, for the next 3 classes as well.

One day I said I wanted to go to Segovià and that comment ended with Ada and Rosa making plans to go with me.  They both asked if I was also going to visit nearby El Escorial, a place I knew nothing about.

We made plans for the following week.  In the meantime Susannas’ mother, Pilar came to visit and we invited her to come as well.  We all boarded the 9 o’clock train and made the  hour and a half trip to the mountains and the town of El Escorial.


Our first stop in El Escorial was for coffee or chocolate and churros.  We took this photo (that’s Rosa) because in the US it would be illegal to advertise something you don’t have!  Yep, they didn’t have churros 😥.

Me, Rosa, Pilar and Ada in black stripes.


We walked up the street towards the monastery, stopping to look around in the visitor center and other shops.


Ada and Rosa checking out the clothes!
Walkway to the monastery entrance.

A most impressive sight, the Royal Monastery of El Escorial, also known as The Royal Site of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, the historical residence of the past kings of Spain. Built for King Philip the Second, it is an austere structure encompassing the following: monastery, church, royal palace, school, seminary, and royal library surrounding 11 main courtyards and 3 service courtyards.  It is the largest​ monastery in Spain.

This is less than 25% of the complex.

Originally this was the property of the Hieronymite monks from the Order of Saint Jerome.  These were hermit monks living according to the Rule of Saint Augustine in 14th century Spain. These monks devoted themselves to study and exercised great influence over the Spanish kings.

Today it is the monastery of the Order of Saint Augustine and a boarding school.



This, like the aqueduct of Segovia, was built without mortar or concrete in the 16th century.

There is a massive library where all of the books are edged in gold gilt and kept under lock and key.

The crypt is the final resting place of Spanish royalty.  Elaborate black and gold caskets line the circular wall, each stacked, in order, one shelf after another.  Other family members are in kept in an adjacent large underground area.

Photos are not allowed inside of the rooms so you can go to Wikipedia or the UNESCO website to see what I cannot show you.

Waiting for the next train under the spreading Jacaranda trees.IMG_20170412_183254El Escorial is a lovely little town with a jaw-dropping national treasure. I am glad I got to see it with my own personal guides.

Segovia, Spain

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE.  I was surprised and a bit perplexed when I began to research Segovia because several of the travel videos said there were only three or four things to see there.  One young woman also erroneously remarked that the world famous Roman aqueduct, constructed sometime in the first century, was a “wall”.

IMG_20170415_183059IMG_20170415_183510The aqueduct consists of 25,000 blocks and 221 pillars all built without mortar or concrete. It stretches 15 kilometers from the river to the town.

Can you imagine anything being constructed today without concrete that would survive 2000 years?  I think not!

The aqueduct is the first amazing structure you see when entering the city of Segovia. Find a seat, order a coffee and try to imagine men hauling enormous stones up, up, up, one upon another all 221 pillars without the use of our modern machinery.  It stretches the imagination. There’s a myth, though, that the city of Segovia was founded by Hercules.  Ok, he could have done it.

Done with the coffee?  Great, now stop in at the tourist office on the right hand side of the square and get a map, you will need it if you are going to visit all of the sites (not just 3 or 4).

Head up the street and on your right you will see Casa De Los Picos, a house with a façade of pyramid shaped granite blocks. The entrance and courtyard are decorated in Talavera tiles. Built in the 15th century, now houses the Segovia Art School.


Continuing you will come to Plaza San Martin where you might encounter a marionette playing music across from St. Martin’s church, one of the prettiest Romanesque churches in Segovia.

The cobbled street brings you into the main square where a massive and grandiose Cathedral de Santa Maria del Segovia takes the spotlight.  Well worth the small entrance fee.  Be prepared to have neck strain.  This ediface is like an enormous buffet where you want to taste everything, but your stomach says “please, no more”.  It is the last Gothic cathedral built in Spain and it is the place where Isabella was crowned queen of Castile.


My photos don’t do it justice.  Check it out on line.



Walk around the plaza, poke around the shops, enjoy a coffee or chocolate and churros!


IMG_20170415_150933The street forks here.  Take the left fork through the arch.

Then continue along the narrow, winding streets of the Jewish Quarter where in early 1492 monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella produced an edict that said in effect that all Jews in Spain had 3 months to either convert to Christianity or leave Spain, which ended 300 years of peaceful co-existance.

There are many small signs telling about the Jewish Quarter as well as shops, museums and churches here.

This street intersects with Plaza Reina Victoria Eugenia and the beautiful Segovia Castle which you might recognise as Walt Disney’s version of Snow White’s home.

IMG_20170415_154211Officially Alcazar de Segovia (Segovia fortress), construction began in about 1155 by King Alfonso the 8th. Many kings of Castile have chosen this fortress as their home.

Many of the interior rooms are decorated in the Moorish style like the Alhambra in Granada and the Alcazar de Seville. You can visit the interior of the castle, and I would recommend purchasing a ticket on line, because the line was VERY LONG on the day of my visit.

IMG_20170415_163841Across the park is a restaurant with a lovely view of the old city behind the fortress wall.  Service was slow and the line for the ladies room moving at a snails pace, but if you are thirsty it’s the only game in town.

Immerse yourself in history, shop til you drop and have fun in Segovia!

“Just Speak”

Dateline: Poznan, Poland.  New English Immersion program now available to native English speakers from around the world.IMG_20170519_085153

A small group of 8 Polish speakers and 8 native English speakers gathered at a retreat on an idyllic lake, complete with swans,  to work on improving the English of the Polish participants; through the use of both typical exercises and some innovative and fun new ones.

Early morning strolls with a cuppa’ java usually led to the dock and quiet conversations with the duck family or a program participant.  The swans were late arrivals, but were routinely seen mid-morning skimming the reeds.  Someone was always using the dock for English exercises.


And, then there was the campfire when we all roasted our sausages and practiced  more English, tried to learn a new dance and talked about music, politics and food.


In this group we had native English speakers from the United States, Australia, England, Wales, and Canada and as you can see, a good time was had by all. As is usually​ the case with theses programs we all leave with more then we expect; new friends, traveling tips, life lessons and happy memories.

If you find yourself headed for Poland and want to have some fun, be useful to English students and eat some really great Polish food join the group at Just Speak in Poznan!


The Price of a Smile

How much do you think a smile would cost?  What value would you assign to a smile given to you?  How would you calculate the residual effect of seeing a smile?

Would you pay .05 (five cents US)?  That’s the price a parent in Luxor would pay for one balloon.  Ah, no problem you say.  It’s a very small price, except in Luxor it might be the choice between something to eat and a balloon for your child.

This idea started when I tossed some balloons from my balcony to kids in the street below.  The resulting whoops and yells resulted in the remaining balloons floating from my balcony.


The lightbulb lit up like a searchlight!  What if I could give balloons to more kids?  Distribution was the issue.  If I walked through the street I would be mobbed!

Mustafa behind the balloons.

Ahh, of course, enlist Mustafa and the carriage.  He was definitely up for this.  What he didn’t know was that he was going to help me blow up 400 balloons on two separate days and give them to the children.


It began in a relatively small way but quickly escalated to a mob scene.  Children came streaming out of buildings like red ants on the march. These kids didn’t need a cellphone to spread the word, they just yelled “balloon”.

Million dollar smiles
Another bag of balloons emptied.


Obviously it wasn’t only the kids who were smiling. We had a great time with the balloons as well.

And along with us, there were smiles from parents, grandparents and neighbors.  Along the street we even got smiles and thanks from store owners and people on the street.

Drivers of several “jitneys” stopped when passengers yelled out. We shared balloons with people who had kids in tow.

So, again, the question, “what price do you put on a smile?”

We calculated that with 400 balloons we could have generated more than 2,000 smiles.  That, divided by the price of four bags of balloons told us that the smiles of children are priceless.

When was the last time you caused someone to smile?  Simple things like telling a stranger on the street how cute, beautiful, interesting, creative or colourful their hat, shirt, shoes, umbrella or jacket is.  When did you tell a store employee their attitude was great? Have you ever noticed how a woman’s face lights up when you compliment a hairstyle?

Make someone’s day, generate some smiles.

Smiles, like yawns are reciprocal.  Share yours today.

People we passed on the street smiled and waved to us as Mustafa drove the carriage to the Karnak neighborhood.